Graduate Statistics for the UK

The latest facts and figures on UK graduates
 
Andrew Fennell photo Andrew Fennell | Dec 2021

Graduates make a huge impact in the UK economy, job market and workplace, so we wanted to record all of the facts and figures surrounding graduates in one place.

We’ve scoured a huge amount of UK graduate information sources to provide you with all of the latest graduate statistics for 2021 – 2022.

If you want to know the current number of graduates in the UK, the average graduate salary, or which universities have the lowest drop-out rates, and more… It’s all below.

 

Contents

Key UK Graduate Statistics

Section 1: Graduate numbers in the UK

Section 2: Universities in the UK

Section 3: Graduate schemes

Section 4: Graduate employment statistics

Section 5: The pandemic and graduates

Section 6: Student finance and student loans

Sources

 

 

Key UK Graduate Statistics

  • There is expected to be 36.4 million graduates in the UK by 2022.
  • Undergraduate figures decreased by 0.5% from 494,795 in 2015/16 to 492,355 in 2020
  • Recent graduate unemployment has risen from 5% in 2017 to 12% in 2020
  • Universities in the UK awarded 140,285 first-class honours qualifications in 2020, a 21.3% increase on the previous year where 115,570 were awarded
  • Business studies graduates achieved the highest number of qualified degrees, totalling 141,125 graduates in 2019
  • Females made up 58% of higher education students in 2020, totalling 466,635
  • The percentage gap decreased from 26.3% to 20.0% between white and Black graduates getting a first-class or upper second degree from 2015 to 2021
  • On average, 6 in 100 (6.3%) students in the UK drop out of university, an average of 48,548 students each year since 2014.
  • Graduate job applications have increased by 41% in comparison to last year
  • Male graduates typically at the age of 25 earn 5% more than the average female graduate
  • A student loan takes an average of 29 years and 4 months to pay off with the average debt being just under £48k in England.

 

Number of graduates per year in the UK

In the UK, there are over 800,000 undergraduates and postgraduates leaving higher education each year. Importantly, this is the number of people graduating and does not include those who do not successfully complete their degree.[1]

 

“There are an estimated 36.4 million graduates in the UK in 2022”

 

In 2017 (the latest study of this kind), 42% of adults aged 21 to 64 years held a graduate degree, meaning there were over 34 million graduates then. [2] Using annual graduate figures, estimates would show that the figure in 2021 would be around 36.4 million graduates in the country.

Undergraduate numbers have steadily increased in the 2010s. The following graph shows this increase in the number of graduates per year in the UK.

 

Graduate statistics UK

 

Undergraduate figures increased by 3.8% from 494,795 in 2015/16 to 513,670 in 2018/19. However, numbers declined by 4% in 2019/20 compared to the previous year most likely due to the pandemic.

Similar to undergraduates, postgraduate numbers also declined in 2019/20 by 2%. Between 2015/16 and 2018/19, postgraduate levels increased by 20%.

 

Gender split of graduates in the UK

The table below shows comparisons of graduates by gender since 2014/15: [1]

 

Graduate numbers by gender

 

Female graduates made the largest contribution to the total number of graduates over the previous five years. In fact, females made up 57% of higher education students in 2018/19, totalling 467,185. The number of females studying in higher education has increased by 9.5% since 2014/15.

Male numbers have also steadily increased from 318,700 in 2014/15 to 332,705 in 2019/2020, a 4.3% increase in male graduates. Graduates who identify as other genders have also increased in the past five years from 95 to 1000 in total. A large increase of around 952.6%.[1]

 

Which course has the highest number of graduates?

In the UK, typically business studies is the course with the highest number of graduates at a total of 141,125 graduates achieving a degree in this selected field in 2020. In second place, science subjects allied to medicine and biological sciences awarded 159,520 students with a degree in that same year. [1]

 

Subject 2019 graduates
Business studies 141,125
Medicine and biological studies 159,520
Social studies 81,440
Education 66,835
Creative arts 62,930
Engineering & technology 52,560
Law 33,235
Computer science 31,805
Languages 31,300
Physical sciences 29,025
History and philosophy 26,895
Communications 20,015
Architecture 19,430
Dentistry 19,050
Maths 13,260
Agriculture 6,560
Veterinary science 1,645

 

At the other end of the scale, veterinary science courses typically have the fewest number of graduates in the UK with just 1,645 graduates entering the market in 2019.

 

Undergraduate enrolment by ethnicity

The vast majority (72.6%) of undergraduates are white, while Asian students account for the second largest demographic at 12.2%. The third largest ethnicity demographic in 2020 was Black students (8.7%), followed by just under 1 in 20 (4.5%) who were from mixed ethnic backgrounds, as well as 4.5% who were from other minority ethnic groups.

 

Graduate enrolment by ethnicity

 

Over a five-year period prior to July 2020, the percentage of Asian, Black, Mixed and other ethnic groups beginning an undergraduate course has increased from 24% to 27.4%. [3]

Black students have seen the biggest increase in postgraduate study as figures rose from 5.8% in 2010/11 to 8.3% in 2019/20. Postgraduate entrants who were Asian rose by 2.4% from 9.4% over the same period.[4]

 

Graduate achievements by ethnicity

A higher proportion of white graduates (38.2%) complete their degree with a first-class qualification than any other ethnicity, closely followed by those with mixed ethnicity (33.3%).

The data below breaks down degree achievement by ethnicity:

 

Ethnicity 1st Class Honours Upper 2nd Class Lower 2nd, 3rd or Pass
Asian 30.30% 47.20% 22.40%
Black 19.10% 46.70% 34.20%
Mixed 33.30% 49.00% 17.80%
White 38.20% 47.60% 14.10%–
Other 27.90% 47.20% 24.90%

 

According to the UK government, the percentage gap decreased from 26.3% to 20.0% between white and Black graduates getting a first-class or upper second degree from 2015 to 2021. The data suggests the trend is shifting but could take many more years to get to similar levels. [5]

 

Student dropout rates in the UK

On average, 6 in 100 (6.3%) students in the UK drop out of university. Since 2007/08, dropout rates have decreased by 1.1%, from 7.3% in 2008, to 6.2% a decade later. [6] This would mean an average of 48,548 students each year drop out.

 

Universities with the highest dropout rates in the UK

The graph below shows universities with the highest dropout rates:

 

Universities with highest dropout rates

 

The London Metropolitan University has the highest dropout rate (18%) with a total of almost 1 in 5 dropping out who enrolled, followed by The University of Bolton with 15.4% of students dropping out of their chosen course. [6]

 

Universities with the lowest dropout rates

Two of the highest-ranked universities in the country have the highest percentage of students continuing their study into graduation. The University of Cambridge loses just 1% of students as dropouts and the University of Oxford loses just 1.2%.[6]

 

Universities with lowest dropout rates

 

Studies show that the majority of universities with the lowest dropout rates can be found in the top 20 on the Complete University Guide’s league table. St George’s and the University of London are just two universities that have one of the lowest dropout scores and don’t sit in the top 20 league table.

 

Undergraduate courses with the highest dropout rates

IT and computing degrees, such as computer science, have the highest dropout rates with 10.7% not making it. UCAS accepted 31,545 computer science students in 2020, meaning 3,376 students would have dropped out.

Undergraduate courses with the highest dropout rates were as follows: [7]

 

Course Dropout rate
Computing 10.7%
Advertising 7.7%
Agriculture 7.4%
Art/Architecture/Business 7.3%
Biology/Engineering 6.7%
Education 6.1%
Joint Honours 6%
Medical (not medicine) 5.9%
Social Studies/Law 5.7%

 

Although dropout data has not been released for 2021, universities are predicting that rates will hit a record high due to lockdown and lack of job roles that support students alongside their studies.

In fact, 29,360 students in the UK deferred their studies for a gap year due to the pandemic, a 9.4% increase compared to 2019. [8]

 

Which universities have the best grades in the UK?

Overall, universities in the UK awarded 140,285 first-class honours qualifications in 2020, a 21.3% increase from the previous year where 115,570 were awarded.

We ranked data based on which universities awarded the most first class honours awards in 2020 below, with University College of London (UCL) coming out on top with 3,055 given. [9]

 

Universities with highest grades 2020 UK

 

Manchester Metropolitan University ranked second awarding 2,920 first-class honours classifications. They also ranked in the top 10 for awarding the most upper second class classifications at 2,860.

Overall, 189,445 upper second class honours qualifications were awarded in 2019/20, a 4.1% decrease compared to the year before.

 

UK universities with top employment figures

Norland College has the highest percentage of graduates in full-time employment in 2021. [1] The college focuses primarily on those looking to work in early years development and childcare, therefore it could be argued it is not comparable to a university offering a whole host of degrees.

The table below shows universities with the highest full-time employment rates for students from the 2019 academic year. It’s important to consider this cohort of graduates would have been job hunting in the pandemic within months.

 

University/College name Graduates in a  full-time employment
Norland College 87%
London Business School 86%
Oak Hill College 86%
Activate Learning 79%
The London School of Architecture 78%
Harper Adams University 75%
Heart of Worcestershire College 75%
The Institute of Cancer Research 74%
Fareham College 74%
Furness College 74%

 

Which universities have the best career prospects?

Five institutions based in London ranked in the top ten for the best career prospects in the UK.  Imperial College London scored the highest (95%) based on the success of graduates after leaving university with the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) scoring slightly lower at 91%. [10]

The graph below shows the top ten universities in the UK ranked by their career prospects:

 

Universities with best career prospects

 

Best UK universities for business founders

Whilst many graduates full of ambition go on to secure a full-time role, many also opt for a different path and become business founders. The best UK university for the proportion of business founders was found to be the University of the Arts London (15.83%), followed by LSE (14.03%).[11]

The table below shows the top ten universities for producing business founders ranked by the percentage of founders that came from there:

 

Top universities for producing business founders Percentage
University of the Arts London 15.83%
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) 14.03%
Goldsmiths, University of London 12.25%
Falmouth University 12.09%
 University of Oxford 12.06%
 University of Cambridge 12%
Soas University of London 11.47%
University College London (UCL) 10.41%
University for the creative arts 10.13%
Middlesex University [E] 10.11%

The percentage of business founders is made from the number of graduates from that institution who go on to become business founders.

 

Graduate schemes: what are they?

Graduate schemes are designed to help someone gain industry experience whilst earning a competitive salary. The aim of the scheme is to allow new candidates to explore various areas of a business in order to broaden their knowledge whilst following a structured program, leading to a successful career for many.

Companies such as Google, KMPG, NHS, and the UK Civil Service are just a few of many large corporations offering graduate schemes on a yearly basis in Britain.

 

Who is eligible for a graduate scheme?

Graduate schemes require a minimum grade in order to be considered for the role. In most cases, a 2.1 or higher is the grade most companies will look for when recruiting new candidates.

 

How many graduate schemes do students apply for?

Recent reports show that students on average were applying up to 29 graduates schemes with different employers.

 

“The NHS receives an average of 85 applications for every graduate position”

 

In terms of NHS graduate schemes, reports show the public health service receives around 85 applications for each graduate position; they have 17,000 applications for just 200 spaces. [12]

On average, reports show that overall graduate job applications have increased by 41% from 2020 to 2021. [13]

 

What is the average graduate scheme salary?

The average graduate scheme salary starts at £19,000 and can reach up to £40,000, making a median average of £29,500, [14] this is similar to Glassdoor’s reported graduate scheme average of £29,090.

 

How much do graduate jobs pay by region?

As you would expect, London pays the highest starting salary for graduates at £27,256, with the South East following at £24,254. In the UK, Northern Ireland pays the least at an average of £21,645 to start. [15]

The table below shows the average starting salary for graduates around the UK:

 

Region Average starting salary
London £27,256
South East £24,254
Scotland £24,151
East of England £24,076
West Midlands £23,117
South West £23,095
East Midlands £22,828
North East £23,014
Yorkshire and The Humber £22,528
North West £22,537
Northern Ireland £21,645

 

Graduate starting salaries can clearly vary with a clear financial divide between the North and South of the UK. The total average salary in the UK is £25,971 in 2021, therefore, only London graduates meet and exceed this.

 

Which graduate schemes pay the highest?

The highest-paid graduate scheme in the UK is a private finance role for Rothschilds, with a salary of £65,000 followed by investment banking positions with J.P. Morgan, who will pay graduates £58,000 a year. [16]

 

Company Role Salary
Rothschilds Private Finance £65,000
J. P. Morgan Investment Banking £58,000
Goldman Sachs Investment Banking £52,000
The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) Investment Banking £54,000

 

Most commonly, the highest-paid graduate schemes sit within finance and banking and often exceed the average amount by tens of thousands of pounds.

 

How many undergraduates gain work experience?

Studies show that the majority (64%) of undergraduates undertake some period of unpaid work experience, with 41% of this group doing so for at least one month. [17]

In 2020, that would mean around 512,227 (64%) students did some period of work experience before entering the job market as graduates, and 210,014 did so unpaid.

 

“Over 210,000 students work unpaid during their degrees each year”

 

A separate study from 1995 showed that 82% of undergraduates had some work experience during their degree, comparatively this could indicate modern students are less likely to do work experience. [18]

In terms of employability, most (94%) interns are offered job roles once they have completed work experience, therefore, it is a valuable decision for students to add to their CV. [17]

 

How long does it take graduates to secure a job?

Securing a job role is a process many students start prior to graduating with many beginning applications in an attempt to begin full-time work as soon as possible once qualified.

Studies show the time it takes for graduates to secure a job varies anywhere between three to 18 months.

 

Graduate outcomes and employment figures

In 2021, 80% of the UK graduates from 2019 were in employment, that’s around 640,912 graduates employed per academic year. A small percentage were also employed whilst enrolled in further study. [1]

 

“A typical graduate cohort will see around 82% enter into employment or further studies within a year”

 

Below is an example of typical graduate outcomes showing the many different paths students choose once they have completed their degrees.

 

Graduate employment figures

 

Using 2018 graduates the data shows a typical outcome for a year’s cohort of students: the majority 82% are in some form of education or employment, a further 5% go into caring for loved ones and/or travel, while the remaining 13% are unemployed, or unknown.

 

Degrees with the highest employment in the UK

Degrees related to professional services, tech, and science, had the highest percentage of high-skilled graduates employed in the UK at 93%, closely followed by information and communication professionals (90%).[19] Therefore, the degrees with the highest employment in the UK, are likely those in I.T., tech, and science related fields.

Below is a table which displays the percentage of graduates and/or postgraduates working in various professional industries by the level of skill, giving some indication of employment by degree subject:

 

Standard Industrial Classification Total high skilled graduates Total medium skilled graduates Total low skilled graduates
Professional, scientific and technical activities 93% 6% 1%
Information and communication 90% 5% 4%
Education 88% 12% 1%
Mining and quarrying 87% 8% 4%
Human health and social work activities 83% 16% 1%
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 82% 15% 2%
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies 82% 16% 2%
Manufacturing 80% 13% 8%
Construction 77% 17% 6%
Real estate activities 77% 19% 5%
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 75% 15% 10%
Financial and insurance activities 75% 20% 5%
Arts, entertainment and recreation 69% 21% 10%
Other service activities 66% 29% 5%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 64% 14% 21%
Administrative and support service activities 56% 24% 20%
Transportation and storage 41% 21% 38%
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 34% 8% 58%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 33% 29% 38%
Accommodation and food service activities 17% 16% 67%
Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods-and services-producing activities of households for own use 7% 91% 2%

 

9 in 10 (90%) postgraduates who completed their course in 2018/2019 were in high-skilled jobs in 2021. In comparison to this, undergraduates equated to 69% suggesting that postgraduate study makes a prospective employee more likely to be hired.

 

How many graduates are self-employed?

In 2021, 12,130 graduates (from 2018 onwards) were self-employed, using graduate figures, that would mean only 0.78% of graduates from two academic years became self-employed after graduating.[19]

The table below demonstrates graduate numbers (from two academic years) for self-employment, and those running their own business, or working on creating projects.

 

Region Self-employed/
freelance
Running own business Developing a creative portfolio Multiple
England 10,395 4,615 17,680 12,435
Wales 500 230 925 590
Scotland 850 330 1,305 875
Northern Ireland 350 125 730 405
Other UK 30 15 60 45
Total UK 12,130 2,585 26,685 14,355

 

What is the average graduate salary?

The average graduate salary in the UK is £30,000 and has been this way since 2015. As we’ve discussed, this varies per region, and graduate schemes often inflate the average when compared to an entry-level role outside of such schemes.

 

UK graduate salaries per subject area

Science-based subjects such as medicine, dentistry, subjects allied to medicine, biological science, and veterinary sciences pay the highest salary to graduates who achieve a first-class degree and are highly skilled with starting salaries ranging between £31,000 to £35,000. [19]

A medium skilled dentistry role could be a dental assistant, while the high-skilled role in the field could be a dentist. This designation is not a choice we have made in the analysis and comes from the various data sources.

 

Subject area of degree  High skilled   Medium skilled   Low skilled  
Medicine & dentistry £35,000 £18,500   N/A
Subjects allied to medicine £25,000 £19,000 £18,000
Biological sciences £23,000 £18,500 £18,000
Veterinary science £31,000   N/A   N/A
Agriculture & related subjects £23,500 £18,500 £19,000
Physical sciences £25,000 £19,500 £18,000
Mathematical sciences £28,000 £20,500 £17,000
Computer science £27,000 £20,000 £18,000
Engineering & technology £28,000 £22,000 £18,000
Architecture, building & planning £24,000 £20,000 £18,000
Social studies £26,000 £20,000 £18,000
Law £22,000 £19,500 £18,000
Business & administrative studies £25,000 £20,500 £18,000
Mass communications & documentation £21,000 £19,500 £17,000
Languages £24,000 £19,500 £18,000
Historical & philosophical studies £24,500 £19,000 £18,000
Creative arts & design £21,000 £18,000 £16,000
Education £24,500 £18,000 £17,000
Combined £26,000 £19,000 £18,000
Total average £25,000 £19,500 £18,000

 

For most roles, if graduates possess a lower range of skills when starting out, the average salary earned is £18,000 with the potential to progress as skillsets are improved.

 

Best universities for high salaries in the UK

The best university for high salaries is the University College of Estate Management (UCEM), as 29% of its graduates receive a salary of £51,000 or more. This is a remote learning institution specialising in construction and real estate graduates, leading to roles that have higher salaries.

London School of Economics (LSE) is the next highest university with 12% of its graduates hitting the £51,000+ salary mark. [13] In 2021, LSE was offering 41 undergraduate courses therefore not having a specialised pool of undergraduates like UCEM.

The following is a list of the top ten universities ranked by the percentage of graduates earning above £51,000:

 

 University % of graduates receiving salary of £51,000+
University College of Estate Management 29%
London School of Economics and Political Science 12%
BPP University 11%
Birkbeck College 9%
Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine 8%
The Open University 8%
The University of Cambridge 7%
Arden University 6%
The University of Oxford 6%
The University of Warwick 5%

 

The highest published graduate starting salaries for 2021 include law firms White & Case (£50,000), Clifford Chance (£48,000), Baker McKenzie (£48,000), Linklaters (£47,000), technology company TPP (£45,000) and retailer Aldi (£44,000.) [13]

 

Gender pay gap for graduates

Male full-time high-skilled graduates who obtained first-class degree qualifications and entered full-time paid employment in the UK in 2019 were paid on average £26,000 compared to high skilled females who were paid £24,500. [19]

On average, male graduates at the age of 25 earn 5% more than the average female graduate. By age 30, the gender pay gap in annual earnings stands at 25%. [20]

The graph below demonstrates the portion of graduates and their earnings for men and women. [19] Studies do not offer comparative information for anyone identifying as other than male or female.

 

Graduate gender pay gap

 

Lower salary bands on average have a higher percentage of women earning more than men. Whilst an average of 6% more women than men earned more in the salary bracket £24,000 – £26,999, it seems that the gender pay gap widens as the salary band increases. In particular, 7% of males earn £51,000+ compared to just 3% of females.

 

How many unemployed graduates in the UK?

The graduate unemployment rate is 12% for graduates who obtained a degree in recent years (2019 onwards), but the overall graduate unemployment rate is 5.1%. In 2017, the unemployment rate for recent graduates was only 5.2%, with an overall rate of 4.7%.

This would mean, in recent years, there are approximately 96,041 unemployed graduates each year in the UK, based off 2020’s academic year.

When looking at the data regionally, we can see that England, Wales, and Scotland have an average graduate unemployment rate of 5%, while Northern Ireland has just 3%. [2]

 

How many jobs do graduates apply for?

Most graduates who apply for graduate schemes and job roles will never receive a response from the majority of their applications. With most graduates applying on average to around 25 job roles, they find that the ratio of receiving an invitation to an interview to job applications is just over twenty to one.

 

UK graduates and Covid-19

The pandemic has had a detrimental impact on opportunities available and career prospects for everyone, but especially graduates entering the market.

As many were ordered to stay indoors, 75% of graduates noticed a fall in the number of available opportunities since March 2020, with many (72.6%) graduates feeling less confident about their future. [38] According to the University of Southampton, 83% feel that the pandemic has had a detrimental impact on graduates’ employment prospects with most graduates feeling like they are now having to think differently about their future (79.4%). [21]

Furthermore, the ONS reports that UK graduates report a lower life satisfaction score (6.7) than people of their typical age (6.9) and average adults (7.0). [22]

The pandemic has also seen many more graduates in roles that aren’t typically filled by people with degrees. In the UK in 2020, 25.5% of graduates were in a role that was requiring skills less than they had gained in their degree, referred to as a ‘skills mismatch’, this was 5% more in 2019 during the pandemic. [2]

 

Student finance statistics in UK

Fees to study at university were first introduced in 1998. In 2006, a new system was introduced which would make studying for a degree more accessible. The cost to study was raised to £3,000 in England which would be classed as a tuition loan. As fees gradually increased, the Government raised fees further to £9,000 per year in 2012.

Whilst the pandemic caused record unemployment, graduates were also unable to make repayments. [40] In fact, 201,900 graduates (From various academic years) failed to make repayments through their salary in 2020-21.

 

How much is the average student loan debt in the UK?

As students in England pay £9,000 a year to study for their chosen degree, they will incur an average of over £45,060 of student loan debt in the 2020 decade.

In comparison, the average student loan debt varies in other regions, for example, Wales has an average of £27,600, and Northern Ireland has £24,720.. Scotland has the lowest average student loan debt at £15,170, this is due to Scottish students not having to pay tuition fees. [23]

 

When does a student debt have to be paid off?

Whilst the new system implemented in 2012 allows students to defer their student loans during their study, these debts still have to be repaid within 30 years.

The table below shows a graduates minimum earnings (before tax) to have to pay back their student debts:

 

Region Annual earnings Monthly earnings
England £27,295 £2,274
Scotland £25,000 £2,083
Wales £27,295 £2,274
Northern Ireland £19,895 £1,657

[24]

 

As you can see, England has the highest repayment threshold allowing graduates to earn up to £27,295 a year before having to start making repayments. In comparison, Northern Ireland has the lowest threshold with graduates beginning repayments once earning £19,895.

The average annual repayment via HMRC per region in order was England (£930), Northern Ireland (£840), Wales (£800), and finally, Scotland (£660.)

 

How long on average does it take a graduate to pay off their student loan?

As students start making repayment at different thresholds, the average time to pay off a student loan may vary per person. A study revealed that a student loan takes an average of 29 years and 4 months to pay off with the average debt being just under £48k in England. [25]

According to the UK Government, it is expected that just 25% of current full-time undergraduates will repay their full student loan. [26]

 

Outstanding student debt

The Students Loan Company states that as of 2021, outstanding student loan debt in the United Kingdom reached over 177 billion British pounds starting from 2013/14 when student debts were increased to £9,000 a year.

 

“Estimates say by 2050, there will be £560 billion of student loan debt in the UK”

 

England owes the majority of this debt standing at £160 billion with Scotland totalling £6.5 billion, Wales £6.2 billion, and Northern Ireland £4.1 billion. By the middle of the century, the Government predicts that the value of outstanding loans will be around £560 billion. [27]

In 2021, 1,117,000 students took a student loan. The value of student loans equalled £15,908 million.

 

Sources

[1] HESA: Higher Education Student Statistics: UK https://www.hesa.ac.uk/news/27-01-2021/sb258-higher-education-student-statistics Accessed December 2021 

 

[2] ONS: Graduates’ labour market outcomes during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/graduateslabourmarketoutcomesduringthecoronaviruscovid19pandemicoccupationalswitchesandskillmismatch/2021-03-08 Accessed December 2021 

 

[3] Gov: First year entrants onto undergraduate study

https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/education-skills-and-training/higher-education/first-year-entrants-onto-undergraduate-degrees/latest#by-ethnicity-over-time

Accessed December 2021 

 

[4] Office for Students: Equality, diversity, and student characteristics data.

https://www.officeforstudents.org.uk/data-and-analysis/equality-diversity-and-student-characteristics-data/

Accessed December 2021 

 

[5] UK Gov: Undergraduate degree results

https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/education-skills-and-training/higher-education/undergraduate-degree-results/latest

Accessed December 2021 

 

[6] Debut: Degree Dropouts

https://debut.careers/degree-dropouts/

Accessed December 2021 

 

[7] Channel 4: Which universities have the highest first year dropout rates?

https://www.channel4.com/news/factcheck/which-universities-have-the-highest-first-year-dropout-rates

Accessed December 2021 

 

[8] Teaching Abroad Direct: Gap Year Statistics UK 2020

https://www.teachingabroaddirect.co.uk/blog/gap-year-statistics-uk

Accessed December 2021 

 

[9] HESA: HE qualifiers by HE provider and level of qualification obtained 2014/15 to 2019/20

https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students/table-16

Accessed December 2021

 

[10] Complete University Guide: University League Tables 2022

https://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/league-tables/rankings?sortby=graduate-prospects

Accessed December 2021  

 

[11] Hitachi Capital Invoice Finance: Which university produces the most CEOs? Via

https://www.businessleader.co.uk/which-university-produces-the-most-ceos/#

Accessed December 2021 

 

[12] NHS: Multi-award winning Graduate Management Training Scheme doubles its intake

https://www.hee.nhs.uk/news-blogs-events/news/multi-award-winning-graduate-management-training-scheme-doubles-its-intake

Accessed December 2021 

 

[13] Highfliers: The Graduate Market in 2021

https://www.highfliers.co.uk/download/2021/graduate_market/GM21-Report.pdf

Accessed December 2021 

 

[14] The Guardian: Graduate schemes: a route to the top – straight after leaving university

https://www.theguardian.com/careers/2019/jul/09/graduate-schemes-a-route-to-the-top-straight-after-leaving-university

Accessed December 2021 

 

[15] Prospects Luminate: Graduate Salaries in the UK

https://luminate.prospects.ac.uk/graduate-salaries-in-the-uk

Accessed December 2021 

 

[16] Glide: Highest Paid Graduate Schemes

https://glide.co.uk/guides/highest-paid-graduate-schemes/

Accessed December 2021 

 

[17] Prospects: Students urged to focus on longer work experience for employability boost

https://www.prospects.ac.uk/prospects-press-office/students-urged-to-focus-on-longer-work-experience-for-employability-boost

Accessed December 2021 

 

[18] HEFCE: Nature and extent of undergraduates’ work experience

https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/5159/1/rd19_02.pdf

Accessed December 2021 

 

[19] HESA: Graduates’ salaries

https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/graduates/salaries

Accessed December 2021 

 

[20] IFS: Gender differences in subject choice lead to gender pay gap immediately after graduation

https://ifs.org.uk/publications/15657#:~:text=At%20age%2025%2C%20the%20average,annual%20earnings%20stands%20at%2025%25.

Accessed December 2021 

 

[21] AGCAS : The Impact of Covid-19 On Recent Graduates’ Career Decisions And Outcomes

https://www.agcas.org.uk/write/MediaUploads/Resources/Research%20and%20knowledge/826_The_impact_of_Covid-19_on_recent_graduates_career_decisions_and_outcomes_-_July_2021.pdf

 

[22] ONS: Coronavirus and higher education students. November 2021 https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandwellbeing/bulletins/coronavirusandhighereducationstudents/5to15november2021

 

[23] UK Gov: Average Loan Balance on entry into repayment

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/992172/Average_loan_balance_on_entry_into_repayment.pdf

Accessed December 2021 

 

[24] STS: Student Loan repayment guide 2021

https://www.savethestudent.org/student-finance/student-loan-repayments.html#plan2

Accessed December 2021 

 

[25] Cosmopolitan: It takes a depressingly long time to pay off your student loan

https://www.cosmopolitan.com/uk/worklife/campus/a12443209/how-long-uni-students-pay-student-loans/

Accessed December 2021 

 

[26] UK Parliament: House of Commons Library: Student loan statistics https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/sn01079/

Accessed December 2021 

 

[27] Statista: Outstanding debt of student loans in the UK 2013-2021

https://www.statista.com/statistics/376411/uk-outstanding-student-loan-debt/

Accessed December 2021